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看全球盐事话中国盐改: 市场本身即可护航

来源: 《中国经济导报》 阅读次数: 发布时间: 2016-06-22

  (2016-04-15《zhongguojingjidaobao》jizhechenmeng)shijieyanshengchanliangzaiqianwuweideguojiashizhongguo、meiguo、yindu、deguohejianada,qianwuweiguojiadeshengchanliangzhanshijieshengchanzongliangde60%yishang(zhongguodiyi,zhan27%)。guowuyuanfazhanyanjiuzhongxinqiyeyanjiusuofuzhurenmashupinggaosuzhongguojingjidaobaojizhe,shijieyanshengchanzongliangnianzengzhang4%zuoyou,yizhongguoweidaibiaodeyazhouimdianjingshizhuyaoqianyinli。

  2017nian1yue1ri,《guowuyuanguanyuyinfaimdianjingtizhigaigefangandetongzhi》yinfa,biaozhizheimdianjingtizhigaigelakailexumu。2017nian4yue7ri《guojiafazhangaigeweibangongting、gongyehexinxihuabubangongtingguanyujinyibuluoshiimdianjingtizhigaigeyouguangongzuodetongzhi》chutai,weijinyibuzuohaoimdianjingtizhigaige,shifangshichanghuolibaojiahuhang。jiuimdianjingtizhigaigewenti,zhongguojingjidaobaojizhejinricaifanglexiangguanzhuanjia。

  zhongguoyangaihouimdianjingshichangquwen

  zairiqianzhaokaideimdianjingtizhigaigegongzuohuiyishang,guojiafazhangaigeweitigaisixunshiyuanwangqianggaosuzhongguojingjidaobaojizhe,zi2017nian1yue1riyangaikaishiyilai,imdianjingshichangzaiyixiawugefangmiandouquyuwending。

  diyi,zaijiagefangmian,woguoshiyongyanjiangjiamingxian。mouxiepinpaijiangjiafudugaoda30%~50%。yihaitianjiangyouweili,haitianjiangyouyijiduhuafeizaishiyongyancaigoufangmiandefeiyong,yinyanjiaxiadiaoerjianshaole1yiyuan。lingwaishipintianjiayantongyangjiangjiamingxian。

  dier,zaigongyingfangmian,shiyongyandechubeichongzu。zhengfufangmiandeshiyongyanchubeikeyiyingdui3geyueshenzhigengjiudeshiyanqianggouchao。geleishiyanqiyedeyanchubeiyefeichangchongzu。

  disan,zaipinpaifangmian,shiyongyandepinzhongfengfu。muqianchangguichaoshizaishoushiyanpinzhongduoda20zhongyishang,yixiedaxingchaoshishiyanpinzhonggaoda50zhong。muqianbeiankezaiquanguoxiaoshoushiyongyandeimdianjingqiyegaoda107jia,qizhongbufayancenghouduzai400midedaxingimdianjingqiye。yixieqiyehaituichulelipinzhuangshiyan,jidadifengfuleshichangdezaishoushiyanpinzhong。

  disi,zaiyulunfangmian,qiwangyanjiadiaozhengweizhuliuhusheng。wangqiangjieshaoshuo,zairiqianweituoguojiaxinxizhongxinjinxingdeshiyanjiageshehuidiaoyanzhongxianshi,80%jieshoufangwenderenmendouqiwangimdianjingjiagediaozheng,suoyishiyanjiagediaozhengweizhuliuyulundaoxiang。

  diwu,zaiquanqiushichangfangmian,woguoshiyanchanxiaowending,channengguoshengbufenkeyikaituoguojishichang。liru,meiguo80%deshiyandouyouwoguogongying。

  shijieimdianjing: duoshuyouzhuanyingzouxiangshichanghua

  quanqiudaduoshufadaguojiadoujingliguoimdianjingtizhigaige,jumashupingjieshao,muqianshijiedeimdianjingtizhidatifenweisandalei: yishijianchizhuanyingtizhi,ruyindu;ershiwanquanyikaoshichangzhutijingzheng,rumeiguo、yingguo,danliangguocaiqudejingzhengzhengcelveyoubutong,meiguocaiquyuanzexingjinzhizhengce,fanduishichanglongduanxingwei,yingguozecaiquguizhibihaiyuanze,fangzhituolasijituandexingcheng,danzuizhonghaishixingchenglejijiaziranlongduanyanqi;sanshizhubufangkaizhuanyingshichang,shixianshichanghua,ruriben、hanguo。ribenjingguo5nianchanyebaohuqi(han3nianjinkouguanzhiqi)deguodugaige,2005nianquxiaolezhuanyingzhidu,danguojiarengbaoliushiyanjibenbaozhanghezhanlvechubeizhineng,caiqulejieyushichangyuzhengfuzhongjiandetizhi,zheiyuribenyanziyuantiaojianjiaochayouguan。hanguomofangribencaiqushezhiguoduqi,quxiaolezhuanyingzhidu。ruidianjinguanimdianjingfeiguojiazhuanying,danyanjiashoudaoguojiaguanzhi。

  zongzhi,chumeiguodengjishaoshuguojiawai,baokuoyingguo、faguo、deguodengfadaguojia,junjinglileyanzhuanmaizhiduhuoyanshuizhidushidai,dansuizheyandeyingyongxianghuagongdeyanshenshideshiyanzhanbidafuxiajiang,gongyehuazhiyanshixianledaguimoshengchan,yandeanquanjianguantixibuduanwanshandengyuanyin,shijieimdianjingtizhizhubucongzhuanyingxiangshichanghuazhuanbian。

  shichangzhihoushijianbingshougoujiaju

  yangaizhihouxingyehuizouxianghefang,congshijiegeguojingyankan,duobantixianzaiqiyedejianbingshougoushang。liruriben,zaiqishishiimdianjingzhuanmaizhidugaigeguoduqizhiqian,qiyejiandeshougoujianbinghuodonghenshao。shichanghuazhihou,qiyeweilenenggoujixushengcun,kaishishixingshougoujianbinghuodong。

  zongtieryan,shijieimdianjingdefazhanhexianzhuangzhuyaotixianzaiyixiajigefangmian:

  yishiguoneiwaibinggouyuhezuochengweifazhandezhongyaoshouduan。20shijiqibashiniandaibeimeiqiyeyiguoneiweizhudeshougoujianbinghuodongshifenhuoyue。ru1985nianmeiguoyijiaqiyetongguobinggoukuodaleyewuguimo,dao1988nianyoubeiqitaqiyeshougou。

  1990niandaiyihou,kuaguobinggouyuhezuochengweichaoliu。meiguoxijuanouzhouyanshichangchengweidangshideredianhuati,rumeiguoimcglobalgongsishougouyingguodesaltuniongongsi;qieshougouguimoyuelaiyueda,ru1997nianmeiguojiajigongsishougoulehelanakzonovelgongsiweiyumeiguodegongchang500wandunchanneng。ouzhoujingneikuaguobinggouhuodongyezhujianhuoyue,2001nianbilishisolvaygongsiyudeguokaliundsalzgongsijinxingimdianjingwuzhenghe,chenglileeuropeansaltgongsi,yanchanliangwei500wandun。2009niandeguojiayanyoushougoulemeiguomodunimdianjing。

  ershikuaguoyanqixingchengxingyelongduan,yanshengchanguimojudahua。10nianqian,meiguoxingchengleimcglobal、modunimdianjing、jiajigongsisandaimdianjingguatou,shengchannenglijunzai1300wandunzuoyou。jinru21shiji,daxingkuaguoimdianjingjianhebingjinyibuxingchengguatoulongduangeju,meiguojiajigongsishougoumeiguoimcglobal,2014nianyanshengchanliangdadao1400wandun。bilishisuweigongsihedeguojiayanjituanhezuomiqie,deguojiayanjituanshougoumeiguomodunhou,liangjiaqiyedeyanshengchannengliyingchaoguo1500wandun。sanlingshangshiyumoxigezhengfuhezuokaifadeessaxiangmunianchannengli800wandun。

  sanshijingyinghetouzikuaguohua。rubilishisuweigongsizaijin10geguojiayongyouyanshengchanjiagongjidi,jituanshouru(zhu: imdianjingshouruzhanbihenshao)zhuyaolaizihaiwai(2014nianshourujiegou: ouzhou34%、beimeizhou23%、ladingmeizhou11%、yazhoujiqita32%),oumeiqiyeyibantongguokuaguobinggoushixiankuaisukuozhang。ribenqiyeyuoumeiqiyekuaguojingyingdemudeyousuobutong,sanlingshangshi、wanhongdengzongheshangsheweilebaozhengribenguoneigongyeyongyandewendinggongji,caiquyuguowaizhengfuheqiyegongtongkaifadexingshihuoquyanziyuanquanyi,caiqubinggoushouduanshijinxieniandeshi。

  sishiyewufazhanzonghehua。jingguojinjishinianhuoshangbainiandefazhan,suoweidekuaguoyanqijibenfazhanchengweidaxingzonghexingqiyejituan,imdianjingjibenzuoweigongyehuoshipinhuonongyebankuaizhongdeziyewu,gedayewujianxingchengxietongxiaoying。rumeiguojiajigongsijingyingyewushejishipin、nongye、gongye、nengyuanhejinronglingyu,2014nianjituanyingyeshouruwei1349yimeiyuan,lirun18.7yimeiyuan;bilishisuweigongsiyongyoujiankangchanpin、qichechanye、jianzhujianzao、gongyeyingyong、nongyeyushipin、nengyuanyuhuanjing、dianliyudianzichanpinqidayewubankuai,2014nianjituanxiaoshoushouruwei102yiouyuan,lirunjin18yiouyuan;deguojiayanjituanzeyihuafeishengchanweizhu,yanzuoweihuafeiyuanliao;ribenzongheshangshezeyiziyuankaifaweizhu,yanzuoweigezhongziyuankaifashouyizhiyi。lingwai,congyanshengchankan,kuaguoimdianjingshixianlechuizhihuohengxiangyitihuashengchan,shenzhixiangjingxihuagonghuozhongduangongyechanpinyanshenfazhan。rusuweijituanyichengweishijiezhumingdehuagongyiyaojituan,yewuxifenweihuagongyuanliao(chunjian、tansuanyan)、suliaoyuanliao(pvc、gaomidujuyixi、jubingxi)、yiyaohesuliaojiagong(qichelingpeijian、suliaoguan、gezhongbomo),qishouruzhanbifenbiewei32%、25%、24%he19%。danzaichanyezuzhixingshishang,oumeiheribenqiyeyousuobutong。oumeiyanqixiangduiduli,chanyezuzhichengxianneibuhua;erribenzongheshangshezhuyaozuoweigongyingshang,yicanguhuohezuoxingshiweixiayouqiyetigongyuancailiaogongyingfuwu,chanyezuzhichengxianwaibuhua。

  qiangjianguan、jianxiehuijunkejiejianmeiguodejingyan

  woguoyangaiyiqidong,xiayiburuhejiejianguojijingyan?wangqiangbiaoshi,zaiimdianjingtizhigaigekaimenhongdejichushang,woguoimdianjingtizhigaigeyaozhuzhuawentidaoxiang,jijiakuaijiejueruxiawenti: jiakuaituijinzhengqifenkai;jiakuaituidongshiyanfalvfaguijianshe;jiakuaituijinqiyechanyeshengji;jiaqiangshichangjiandu;jianliyanxingyexinyongxitong;shixingduchajizhi。

  mashupingzhichu,zaizhengfuduishichangdejianguanfangmian,meiguomeiyouzhidingzhuanmendeimdianjingfagui,yemeiyouguanliyandezhuanmenjigou。yanchanpinyuqitaputongshangpinyiyang,zaishichangjingzhengdekuangjianeiyunxing,shoufanlongduanfa、fanqingxiaofa、shipinfadengyibanfalvfaguideguanzhi。zhengfujimeiguoimdianjingxiehuizhidinggezhongyongtuyandejishubiaozhun,gegongsibixuyangezunzhaozhixing。gongsizuoweishichangjingyingdezhuti,zijuezunshouxiangguanfalvfaguiheshichangjingyingguize。suiranmeiguozai19shijihe20shijichuqishixingguoguoneiyanchanyebaohuzhengce,danshicongweishishiguoleisiribende“yanzhuanmaizhidu”。congshichangjianguanjiaodukan,meiguofazhijianquan、shichanghuachengdugao、imdianjingqiyezilvxinggao,erwoguokeyijiejianmeiguodejingyan。

  wangqiangyebiaoshi,woguokeyijianliimdianjingqiyeheimingdan,duiyubuhegeqiye,jiangjiaruheimingdanlieruchengfacuoshizhiyi。tongshijianlishiyanxingyedekezhuisuxitong,congyuanliaodaojiagongkeyiyimuleran,dujuebuhegechanpindechuxian。tongshizhidingimdianjingqiyedezhunruguifan,xingchengyishichangweidaoxiangdeyoushenglietaijizhi。tongshihaikefahuixingyexiehuidejijizuoyong,zhidingxiangguandefalvfagui。

  duici,mashupingrenweiimdianjingxiehuidejijizuoyongshikeyikendingde,woguokeyijiejianqitaguojiadejingyan,jijikaizhanxingyexiehuijianshe。meiguoimdianjingxiehuiduicujinxingyefazhanfahuilejijizuoyong。muqianmeiguoimdianjingxiehuiyoutuantihuiyuan37ge(tuantihuiyuanchumeiguoguoneixiangguanchengyuandanweiwai,haibaokuobeimei、nanmei、ouzhou、yazhoudengxiangguanguojiadedanwei。zhongyanjituanxigaixiehuidetuantihuiyuan)。

  meiguoimdianjingxiehuidaibiaomeiguoyanxingyeyuzhengfubaochijingchangxingdelianxi,xiediaoqiyeyuzhengfuzhijiandegonggongzhengce、gonggongguanxi,daibiaoxingyeshuohua,weixingyezhengquhefaquanyi;fuzexiediaohuiyuandanweizhijiandexianghuguanxi;imdianjingxiehuihaijingchangkaizhanshiyanzhishixuanchuan,yandeshengchan、shiyongdengfangmiandediaochayuyanjiu,zuzhikaizhangezhongxueshuhuodong,weihuiyuantigongxinxifuwu。rudangqianshehuicunzaipianjian,youxierenrenweichiyanyouhaijiankang,duiimdianjingshichangzaochengkunrao。weici,meiguoimdianjingxiehuilvxing“xiaochubuzhunquedegongzhongrenzhi”zhize,tongguozuzhizhuanjiayanjiu,keguangongzhengditigongzhengquexinxi,yindaoshehuiyulun,cujinshichangxiaoshou。zongzhimeiguoimdianjingxiehuijijifahuizuoyong,buchonghewanshanlemeiguoimdianjingshichangyunxingjizhi。